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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological condition characterized by abnormal brain development. Individuals with ASD frequently have issues with social communication and interaction, as well as restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with ASD may learn, move, or pay attention in different ways.

Social Communication and Interaction Skills

People with ASD may have problems interacting and communicating with others. Social communication and interaction skills are two areas that can be challenging for people on the autism spectrum. The following are examples of social communication and social interaction features linked to ASD:

  • Does not respond to name by 9 months of age
  • Does not express facial emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, or surprise by 9 months of age
  • Does not play simple interactive games like pat-a-cake by 12 months of age
  • Uses only a few or no gestures at 12 months old (for example, does not wave goodbye)
  • Does not share interests with others by 15 months of age (for example, shows you an item that they enjoy)
  • At 18 months, this baby does not point to show you something fascinating.
  • By 24 months, he or she does not notice when others are hurt or distressed.
  • By 36 months, he or She does not respond to your beckoning.
  • During play, He or she does not pretend to be someone else, such as a teacher or superhero.
  • The ability for an individual who is two years old to sing and dance for you is called proedomonism . It typically occurs somewhere between the ages of 2 and 4 years old.

Restricted or Repetitive Behaviors or Interests

People with ASD have behaviors or interests that may appear strange. These activities or hobbies distinguish ASD from other disorders characterized by dysfunction in social communication and interaction alone. There are a variety of examples for this, including:

  • Gets irritated when the sequence is altered.
  • Repeats words or phrases (known as echolalia) over and over.
  • Every time he plays with toys, he does it in exactly the same way. He’s totally absorbed by specific aspects of items (for example, wheels).
  • Has an extreme interest in something particular
  • Must adhere to a set of standards
  • Flaps hands, shakes body, or spins self in circles Has unusual reactions to how things sound, smell, taste, appear, or feel

Other Characteristics

The majority of individuals with ASD have additional associated qualities. These might include:

  • Language, motor, and cognitive development may be delayed.
  • Epilepsy or seizure disorder
  • Unusual eating and sleeping habits
  • Gastrointestinal problems (for example, constipation)
  • Unexplained mood or emotional changes
  • Anxiety, tension, or worry that is excessive For example, lack of anxiety vs. excess anxiety

It is important to note that children with ASD may not have all or any of the behaviors listed as examples here.

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